The HWVA are aware, by reporting, of 1 case of CECS in the HWV.
First recognized in 1997 by German veterinarian Diana Plange after a number of dogs bred by a single breeder were affected. Recognized in 1999 in the US.
Definition: the term Canine Epileptoid Cramping Syndrome (CECS) is actually a misnomer as the condition has no association with epilepsy. It is a form of Paroxysmal Dyskinesia (PD).
The term ‘dyskinesia’ is a Greek word literally meaning ‘bad movement’ with ‘paroxysmal’ depicting the intermittent nature of the problem.
The term Paroxysmal Gluten Sensitive Dyskinesia is now preferred (PGSD).
Cause: PGSD is thought to be due to a gluten sensitivity.
Signs: episodic involuntary movements including:
Ballismus – abrupt contraction of limb muscles causing a flailing movement of the limb, this is often unilateral, as in hemiballismus.
Dystonia – sustained involuntary contraction of a group of muscles producing abnormal postures.
Chorea – abrupt, non-sustained contraction of different groups of muscles in the same patient.
Athetosis – prolonged contraction of trunk muscles causing a bending or writhing motion, this often accompanies chorea, thus described as choreathetosis.
These signs can be seen in any breed of any dog but PGSD is unique in that it may be associated with additional signs suggestive of gastrointestinal disease such as intermittent vomiting, diarrhoea, borborygmi (ie loud gut noises) and abdominal cramping.
Some affected dogs will also show frequent signs suggestive of atopy such as scratching, chewing and licking at the skin.
Diagnosis: is by inspection (ie observing a typical episode recorded by the owner) with clinical history, potential gastrointestinal and skin involvement and episode phenomenology being fundamental to this diagnosis. Serological testing for anti-gliadin and transglumainase-2 antibodies can confirm a diagnosis.
Treatment: a gluten free diet has been shown to be successful with dogs going into complete remission for both the neurological signs and the signs suggestive of gastrointestinal and dermatological problems.
Prognosis: prognosis is usually excellent with dogs responding very well to the diet.
Episodes are not life-threatening and do not appear to progress.
Article reproduced from Vetstream.com